Components of Computer Architecture

What are the components of Computer Architecture?

In the last post, I discussed you about Computer and its architecture. Today I am going to tell you about the components of the computer.

Let’s start with it…

Basically, a computer consists of three vital components, which are listed below:

  1. I/o Unit (Input/Output)
  2. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  3. Memory Unit

Let me tell you it diagrammatically.

Components of Computer Architecture

Above diagram is representing the connectivity of components of a computer system. Let’s explore them one by one:

Input Unit: 

Computer system understands the codes. And a normal user understands the normal language like English etc. So we need devices for that which insert data to a computer for processing. The data is in code but it takes data from user like you and me in terms of normal language that we know. Not in terms of computer codes. Devices that we use is known as input devices or input units. e.g. keyboard, mouse etc.

Control Unit:

Control unit carries its very vital importance in computer architecture. So, I’m gonna cover it in the separate post itself. But till my next post, I will just give you a basic idea like what really it does on the computer.

Basically, we give many requests to the computer system and we get the desired output as well. So, have you analyzed it how? Let me tell you. It happens all through the control unit. We given request and control unit tells the whole system accordingly that how to react to that particular request. Like if you have given print command then the system should print the data and if you’re attaching the Bluetooth device then, your system should work accordingly. That’s all controlled by Control unit.

The primary function of the Control Unit:

  1. Control unit takes care of the sequence of data movements between the sub-units.
  2. Control unit understand the instructions and take action accordingly.
  3. Control Unit also controls data flow inside the processor.
  4. Control unit also handles multiple tasks, such as
    1. Fetching,
    2. Decoding,
    3. Execution handling and
    4. Storing results.

More details will be covered in my next post, that will be on the Control Unit.


Registers are the high-speed temporary memory. Registers are directly accessed and manipulated by CPU during execution. Registers are accessed by CPU during the task executions, by CPU.

Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU):

An Arithmetical logical unit is a processing unit which is used to process Arithmetic calculation work like +,-,*,/ and logical operation like AND, OR etc. It uses the register to store and process the data.

Central Processing Unit (CPU):

Central Processing Unit is a combination of all control unit, registers, an input unit and output unit with memory units. These all small components process and generate the results to the users. CPU understands and execute the instructions in assembly language. CPU carries the following responsibilities:

  1. CPU carries out all the operations for data that goes inside the system to process it.
  2. CPU executes the final data
  3. When required, at that time CPU transfer output data from registers to main memory.

Above I have mentioned small units which doesn’t need the much extension. Units that are left will be discussed in my next articles because they deserve a fully-fledged article not a brief intro. So stay tuned!



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