Lean Operations and Six-Sigma, Lean Operations and Six-Sigma Assignment

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Title: Assignment 1 Lean Six Sigma-Pharmacy Academic

  1. Select, explain and reflect upon core lean principles and techniques.
  2. Demonstrate a working knowledge and application of lean principles and six sigma tools and techniques to streamline selected businesses.
  3. Critically review recent developments in lean thinking, best practices and case studies.
    References/recommended reading:
    CAMP, Robert. B. (2013), Sustainable lean: the story of a cultural transformation. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC,
    COX, I., GAUDARD, M. A., RAMSEY, P. J., STEPHENS, M. L., & WRIGHT, L. (2016). Visual six sigma: making data analysis lean. John Wiley & Sons.
    PANDE, Peter S., (2013), The Six Sigma Way, McGraw-Hill Education, 2nd Edition.
    ROTHER, Mike and SHOOK John (2003), Learning to see: value stream mapping to create value and eliminate muda. Brookline, Mass.: Lean Enterprise Institute, Edition Version 1.3.
    WOMACK, J., P., JONES, D., T. and ROOS, D. (1990), The Machine that Changed the World, Rawson Associates Scribner, New York.
    • Please also refer to
    o Materials supplied on Blackboard
  4. Please ensure that all sources of information used are referenced. For guidance see:
    http://libguides.shu.ac.uk/referencing
    All assessments are subject to SHU’s collusion and plaigiarism regulations. Please refer to:
    https://students.shu.ac.uk/shuspacecontent/assessment/plagiarism
  5. The assignment consists of two parts:
    Part 1:
    Write a maximum of 2000 words per group (not per student) covering the following title in a format of a research paper
    “The impact of the digital era on the implementation of Lean Six sigma”
    The format of the research paper should be as follows:
    1) The title “The impact of the digital era on the implementation of Lean Six Sigma.”
    2) Abstract (150 words)
    3) Introduction and literature review (around 600 words)
    4) Research Method(s) (around 400 words)
    5) The latest development and the impact of digitalisation on the Six Sigma implementation (around 600 words)
    6) Lessons learned and conclusions (around 250 words)
    References (not counted in the number of words)
    Please note that the number of words provided is just a guide, but the Abstract must be 150 words.
  6. Part 2:
    The limited resource during Covid-19 and variability due to the lack of standardisation in the NHS forced the practitioners to search for appropriate ways to reduce the negative implication. Hospitals pharmacies were faced with unbearable variability, which created risks and efforts to reduce variation, which would have a positive impact on reducing the costs and service time that was and still critical during the pandemic. Implementing Lean Six Sigma in pharmacies can improve efficiency by shortening the waiting time for delivering the required drugs and reducing errors in dispensing medicine.
    Therefore, a pharmacy manager at a busy hospital decided to benefit from the lean six sigma implementation and handed over the project to a Lean Six Sigma champion, who formed a team to answer the following questions:
    1)What is the impact of Lean Six Sigma implementation on pharmacy service time and variability?
    2) What is the impact of Lean Six Sigma implementation on the pharmacy’s capabilities?
    3) What is the impact of employing a Kanban system on the waiting time?
    During the analysis stage, the team started collecting the required data to evaluate the current situation and identify potential improvements. The team monitored the waiting time and data for five samples with a sample size of 20 patients are collected and shown in Table 1.
    Table 1 Patients waiting time before Lean Six Sigma Implementation

    Patient (sample Size)

    The Pharmacy Manager was amazed by the idea of the two-bin Kanban System implemented and asked the Lean Six Sigma team to find the suitable number of Kanabn cards required for a particular medicine which has a steady daily demand of at least 500 items with a withdrawal time of 1.05 day and the production time of 0.65 day. The capacity of the bin was 50 items and the pharmacy operated at 85% efficiency.
    Later on, and due to the Covid-19 pandemic situation in the hospital, the manager finds that he is desperate to reduce the waiting time by 25%.
    You are required to carry out a complete Six Sigma Cycle, including the impact of the Kanban System, focusing on the following questions:
    1) What is the impact of Lean Six Sigma implementation on pharmacy service time and variability?
    2) What is the impact of Lean Six Sigma implementation on the pharmacy’s capabilities?
    3) What is the impact of employing the Kanban system on the waiting time?
    Due to the nature of the required answer for part two, which is mainly based on calculations and the usage of Minitab, the number of words for part 2 is not limited, but critical analysis and reasonable explanation for the provided calculation is expected.
    Lean Operations and Six-Sigma
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    MARKS AWARDED FOR Part 1 is 50% of the total assignment marks
    MARKS AWARDED FOR Part 2 is 50% of the total assignment marks
    This assignment is worth 50 % of the overall assessment for this module.
    I certify that the work submitted is my own and that any material derived or quoted from the published or unpublished work of other persons has been duly acknowledged.
    Signed: …………………………………………………………….. Student 1 ID ( )
    Signed: …………………………………………………………….. Student 1 ID ( )
    Signed: …………………………………………………………….. Student 1 ID ( )
    Signed: …………………………………………………………….. Student 1 ID ( )
    PEER ASSESSMENT:
    This assignment is group-based, with a maximum of four students should be on each assignment. However, part-time students have the flexibility to choose between group-based with a maximum of four students or individual assignments.
    In this section, you must specify how much work (in terms of percentage) each student has contributed. Students have to agree and sign in front of each other.
    Student Name Percentage Signature
    1) ______________________________________________________
    2) ______________________________________________________
    3) ______________________________________________________
    4) ______________________________________________________
    STUDENTS COMMENTS ON THE ASSIGNMENT
    MARKER’S COMMENTS
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    Important information you must read
    Marking: The coursework will be marked on the work submitted. You have to achieve a minimum of 50% to pass this assignment or 40% provided that you achieve a minimum of 60% in the second assignment and vice versa. No matter what marks you receive, the work will not be returned for additions or amendments, and the grade achieved will be submitted to the exam board. If the work is not handed in by the due date, it will be awarded a zero grade (fail & repeat).
    Extension: If there are any extenuating circumstances preventing your timely submission of the assignment, it is your responsibility to apply for mitigation before the submission date. Applications for mitigating circumstances must be applied independently to Hallam Help. However, it is acknowledged that the decision making will be based on the evidence provided in support of your claims.
    Format: The report should be digitally produced. Handwritten or scanned documents are unacceptable. The report must have a title page, a contents page and a bibliography/references, each section should be separate with heading or subheading highlighted in some manner. Drawings can be photocopied or downloaded, but they must be referenced and have permission from the owner. Text must not be downloaded and claimed as students own. Loose sheets of paper will not be accepted under any circumstances. The report must be checked for spelling.
    Plagiarism: Plagiarism is completely unacceptable and is dealt with very severely. To avoid plagiarism, you must be sure you understand what plagiarism is, and how to avoid it. The importance of correctly acknowledging the work of others cannot be over-emphasised. It is absolutely essential that specific, detailed references are provided locally within your work for each and every extract you take from work that is not your own. A general reference at the end of a report to a source from which you have extracted text items is not acceptable.
    The use of italics and/or inverted commas to highlight text extracts that are not your own original work is a simple way of demonstrating honesty in your work. Each text extract you use should be individually linked to a numbered list of specific references provided at the end of your work.
    Contract cheating: Contract cheating is a form of academic dishonesty in which students get others to complete their coursework for them by putting it out to tender. This includes projects fully or partly completed by friends, relatives or parents or projects brought over the internet. Contract cheating is strictly unacceptable and will be dealt with as per the academic misconduct regulations.
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    Use the following guidelines to self-assess your work before submission
    University Grade Descriptors – Level 7 (From 2021-2022)
    Class Grade %
    General Characteristics Distinction (Exceptional) 16 82 Exceptional breadth and depth of knowledge and understanding evidenced by own independent insight and critical awareness of relevant literature and concepts at the forefront of the discipline; evidence of extensive and appropriate independent inquiry operating with advanced concepts, methods and techniques to solve problems in unfamiliar contexts; Cogent arguments and explanations are consistently provided using a range of media demonstrating an ability to communicate effectively in a variety of formats using a sophisticated level of the English language in an eloquent and professional manner to both technical and non-technical audiences; a sustained academic approach to all aspects of the tasks is evidenced; academic work extends boundaries of the disciplines and is beyond expectation of the level and may achieve publishable or commercial standard.
    Distinction
    (Excellent) 15 78
    Excellent knowledge and understanding evidenced by some clear independent insight and critical awareness of relevant concepts some of which are at the forefront of the discipline; evidence of appropriate independent inquiry operating with core concepts, methods and techniques to solve complex problems in mostly familiar contexts; Arguments and explanations are provided that is well-supported by the literature and in some cases uses a range of media demonstrating an ability to communicate effectively in a limited number of formats using own style that is suited to both technical and non-technical audiences; a sustained academic approach to most aspects of the tasks is evidenced; one or more aspects of the academic work is beyond the prescribed range and evidences a competent understanding of all of the relevant taught content. 14 75 13 72
    Merit
    (Good) 12 68
    Very good knowledge and understanding is evidenced as the student is typically able to independently relate taught facts/concepts together some of which are at the forefront of the discipline; evidence of some competent independent inquiry operating with core concepts, methods and techniques to solve familiar problems; Arguments and explanations are provided that are typically supported by the literature and in some cases may challenge some received wisdoms; competently uses all taught media and communication methods to communicate effectively in a familiar settings; an academically rigorous approach applied to some aspects of the tasks is evidenced; some beyond the prescribed range, may rely on set sources to advance work/direct arguments; demonstrates autonomy in approach to learning. 11 65 10 62
    Pass
    (Sufficient) 9 58
    Satisfactory knowledge and understanding of the area of study balanced towards the descriptive rather than critical or analytical and mostly confined to concepts that are not at the forefront of the discipline; evidence of some independent reading and research to advance work and inform arguments and approaches; Arguments and explanations are limited in range and depth although some are adequately supported by the literature albeit descriptively rather than critically; competently uses at least one taught media and communication method to communicate appropriately in familiar settings; although the approach applied to some aspects of the tasks may lack academic rigour, there are some clear areas of competence within the prescribed range. Relies on set sources to advance work/direct arguments and communicated in a way which shows clarity but structure may not always be coherent. 8 55 7 52
    FAIL
    (Insufficient) 6 48
    Knowledge and understanding is insufficient as the student only evidences an understanding of small subset of the taught concepts and techniques; fails to make sufficient links between known concepts and facts to adequately solve relevant aspects of the brief/problem; little ability to independently select and evaluate reading/research with almost total reliance on set sources and unsubstantiated arguments/methods; communication/presentation may be competent in places but fails to demonstrate structure, clarity and/or focus; inability to adequately define problems and make reasoned judgements; the general approach to tasks lacks rigor and competence. 4 45 2 42 FAIL (Incompetent) 1 38 Knowledge and understanding is highly insufficient as the student is unable to evidence any meaningful understanding of taught concepts or methods; very limited evidence of reading and research to advance work; inadequate technical and practical skills as the student is unable to use and apply such skills to address problems or make judgements; limited or lack of understanding of the boundaries of the discipline and does not question received wisdom; approach to learning lacks autonomy and approach to tasks is not sustained; inability to communicate coherently. ZERO 0 0 Work not submitted, work of no merit, penalty in some misconduct cases.
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